Workassociated ergonomic exposures and injuries in cocoa production. Cocoa farming an overview international cocoa initiative. These are the foundation of agronomy in ghana s economy. This page provides ghana gdp from agriculture actual values, historical data, forecast, chart, statistics, economic. Forced child labor and cocoa production in west africa. In ghana, cocoa farmers face challenges such as aging trees, pests, and diseases. A history of exploitation 2 contents page executive summary 3 1. Rubber plantations are displacing ghanas small cocoa. Mondelez international recognizes this evolving production landscape and supports this investigation into measuring the.
Do you know that cocoa farming business is one of the highly profitable agribusiness in nigeria. These will lead to an improved ghanas cocoa value chain gcvc profitability which will trickle down to the smallholder farmers. Western african countries, mostly ghana and the ivory coast,2 supply more. It is the 25th edition of an annual series that commenced in 1991.
In 20182019, ghana is estimated to have produced about 812 thousand tons of cocoa beans, a decrease from approximately 969 thousand tons in 20162017. Cocoa farmers are usually settlers who lease the land, sometimes through an informal gentlemans agreement, to grow cocoa. This study focuses on the resilience of the cocoa value chain in ghana. Cocoa is the countrys second most important export and provides income to a large segment of the ghanaian population. Good agricultural practices for sustainable cocoa production. Although cocoa has been cultivated for centuries in central america, it is a relative newcomer to africa, and even more recent in asia. But the cocoa sector has been afflicted with continuing problems, including declining productivity, crop damage from. Creating opportunities for young people in ghana s cocoa sector 7 executive summary cocoa production is essential to the health of ghana s economy, contributing 3% to its gross domestic product and supporting the livelihoods of approximately 4 million farming households gss, 2015. Data from 280 organic and 378 conventional cocoa farm from suhum area in ghana.
Pdf cocoa production in ghana kwasi clarks academia. It is poised to maintain ghana premium quality cocoa. Ghana produces a variety of crops in various climatic zones which range from dry savanna to wet forest and which run in eastwest bands across ghana. Chocolate is a product of the cacao bean, which grows primarily in the tropical climates of western africa, asia, and latin america. It has been estimated that in 20102011 exports of cocoa ghana s reached 1 004 000 mt gain, 2012in terms of world cocoa exports, ghana has maintained its. Pdf an empirical analysis of cocoa bean production in ghana. In this regard, enhancement of the soil fertility status of cocoa farms is critical appaih et al. This article analyses cocoa production in ghana from 1990 to 2011, using johansen cointegration and ols regression approaches.
In ghana the cocoa production has steadily risen from 300,000 tons in 1995 to 900,000 tons in 2014. Hand pollination of cocoa trees yielding more returns for farmers in the western region. Kwaku boateng has disclosed that coconut farming is second to cocoa production in ghana. Cocoa is the most important agricultural export crop for ghana as it delivers 30% of the countrys total export earnings asantepoku and angelucci, 20. Agricultural crops, including yams, grains, cocoa, oil palms, kola nuts, and. Cocoa value chain implication for the smallholder farmer in. Hand pollination of cocoa trees yielding more returns for. Guide describing trade and industry practices, as well as regulations applying to cocoa traces customs procedures, systems and techniques used at each stage of the cocoa supply chain. The area in mature productive cocoa per farm averages 5. There is a general belief that this was primarily the result of a mass spraying programme, combined with a dramatic rise in fertilizer use. Pdf factors affecting adoption of organic cocoa farming in ghana. A guide to trade practices international trade centre. Plants that thrive in ghana include grains, yams, cocoa, timber, oil palms, and kola nuts.
Moniliophthora perniciosa is a fungus responsible for witches broom disease. Estimated annual profits of companies farmer income a day. This manual has been developed by the world cocoa foundation wcf and by rainforest alliance, in collaboration with ghana cocoa board, as part of the usaid feed the future partnership for climate smart cocoa program, led by wcf, and of the cgiar research program on climate change, agriculture and food security ccafs. The seeds planted in ghana were brought from fernando po by tetteh quarshie or his apprentice adjah, after previous attempts by the dutch 1815 and the swiss 1843 to introduce cocoa in ghana had failed. A history of exploitation antislavery international. A cash crop, cocoa farming accounts for a substantial percentage of family income in many countries. Pdf cocoa theobroma cacao lineus has remained a valuable crop and major foreign exchange earner among other agricultural. Agriculture, adoption, ghana, organic cocoa, logistic regression analysis. Child labor and slavery in the chocolate industry food. Assessment of land tenurerelated constraints to cocoa productivity in ghana 3 1. The cocoa industry employs approximately 800,000 farm families spread over six of the ten regions of ghana. Using data on 280 organic cocoa farms and 378 conventional cocoa farms from suhum cocoa district in ghana, a probit model was fitted to the data. Analysis of incentives and disincentives for cocoa in ghana. The cocoa industry has profited from the utilization of forced labor in west africa since the late 1800s.
Pdf economic analysis of cocoa production in ghana. Incentives for cocoa bean production in ghana does quality matter. Manual labor and material handling, the use of sharp tools, application of pesticides, and lack of personal protective equipment and clothing characterized cocoa production in western ghana. Ghana is the worlds third largest producer figure 1 and the second largest exporter of cocoa beans after cote divoire figure 2. Economic cacao cultivars are grown for the production of dried beans, which are the source of cocoa liquor, cocoa butter, cocoa cake and cocoa powder. Ghana cocoa industryan analysis from the innovation. Ninety percent of the worlds cocoa is grown on small family farms by about 6 million farmers who earn their living from growing and selling cocoa beans, according to fair trade canada. Cocoa is affected by a range of pests and diseases, with some estimates putting losses as high as 30% to 40% of global production. The growing population of cocoa farmers also reinvested its profits in expan ding cocoa production in the western end of ghana s forest zone, rapidly shifting the production frontier into ashanti and brong. Importance of cocoa cocoa is a cash crop grown throughout the humid tropics with about 6. This statistic shows the world cocoa production by country from 201220 to 20172018. The ghana cocoa board cocobod regulates the cocoa industry in ghana, with a primary mandate of enabling production, processing, and marketing of cocoa as efficiently and effectively as possible ghana cocoa board, 2012.
In cameroon, cocoa was introduced during the colonial period of 1925 to 1939. Incentives for sustainable cocoa production in ghana world cocoa. In view of the sustainability of cocoa production in ghana, many activities. During the last century the fungus spread throughout all of south america, panama and the caribbean, causing great losses in production. Cocoa production occurs in the countrys forested areas. Incentives for sustainable cocoa production in ghana food and. Facts and figures 2015, has been prepared by the statistics research and information directorate srid of the ministry of food and agriculture mofa.
At the end of the season, the cocoa output is divided into thirds, with the owner taking onethird and the farmer keeping the rest. The quality control company, the cocoa research institute of ghana, the cocoa marketing company, and. Farmers benefit from the global market for the crop and the cacao trees ability to work well with other crops that peak at different times of the year. A training manual for field officers world cocoa foundation. Assessing the resilience of the cocoa value chain in ghana. Behind ivory coast, ghana is the second largest cocoa exporter in the world. Despite the portuguese decree in 1876 abolishing slavery, and the release of cocoa plantation. Cocoa is the chief agricultural export of ghana and ghana s main cash crop. Mapping sustainable production in ghanaian cocoa, report to cadbury. The results of the cointegration test show a long run equilibrium.
Creating opportunities for young people in ghanas cocoa. Cocoa farming plays a critical economic and social role in ghana. Cocoa is ghana s most important agricultural export crop and provides the third largest. To improve farmers livelihoods, cocoa life has partnered with tree global, a large scale nursery operator to produce highquality cocoa seedlings to be distributed among farmers and help rehabilitate degraded farmlands. Incentives for smallholders to enhance the production of quality. Agriculture sector policy note transforming agriculture for economic growth, job creation and food security the world bank group agriculture global practice. Early success in cooperative development stimulated a. The frequency of pesticide use in ghana is lower than in nigeria or. Agriculture in ghana consists of a variety of agricultural products and is an established economic sector, and provides employment on a formal and informal basis. Planting, replanting and tree diversification in cocoa systems authors richard asare and sonii david collaborating partner sustainable tree crops program of the international institute of tropical agriculture p. Single cycle degree programme in economics and management final thesis title the ghanaian cocoa market. One of the key findings of the study is that, due to several reasons, productivity in cocoa farming is low, and declines as the farmers get older.
Cacao is a fastgrowing tropical forest plant, capable of being cultivated in association with other trees, and providing additional goods like timber and firewood, fruits, construction materials. Being primarily a cash crop, cocoa does not contribute much to the nutritional aspects of food security. Ghana s cocoa cultivation, however, is noted within the developing world to be one of the most modeled commodities and valuables. In ghana, much of the land used for cocoa production belongs to local chiefs.18 1443 560 674 1082 74 1182 1390 6 663 398 204 1500 448 579 1083 305 51 412 1013 1436 682 585 85 158 1240 14 1472 539 158 1455 63 1290 1326 928 1170 975 1439 1333 1064